Most assuredly, your next annual sales conference will include the obligatory updates about products and the on-going marketing programs.
Some systems on the market are focussed on the numeric side of planning and some concentrate on the visual, qualitative side. It would be unusual to find a single system that encompassed the entire list shown above.
Each module will consist of a set of inputs, processes and outputs.
The overall process is linear, but it is important that it should also be able to be re-iterated and the new results rolled downstream through the system. Before we look at these in more detail, though, we should first look at the issues that relate to the scope of the system.
The question of scope is really one of detail. What levels of your product and branch hierarchies do you need to use in the planning process? How much detail do you need?
It is important to realise here that, in practice, it is unlikely that you can cover all the bases. There is an inevitable trade-off to make between accuracy and efficiency.
Each extra level of detail may marginally increase the accuracy, but will require a comparatively huge increase in resources required. For example, let us assume that we are generating a seasonal value budget and that we are a branch retailer with categories. If we plan at an all branch total level we will have category plans to review.
To some extent, however, the scope will be defined by the planning process that you select. If you wish to plan using space by branch, then you will obviously have to maintain and store base data and plan at an individual branch level. If your strategy is served well by your creating a seasonal budget at an all branch level by category, then there is little to be gained by including gratuitous branch detail.
You will also have to accept that there are certain factors that will always be outside your control. These would include the economy, distortions in weather patterns and competitive activity.
The fact that these variables can have a strong influence on actual performance is a powerful argument for coming to a realistic compromise relating to the level of detail at which you plan. After all, the one thing that we can be certain of is that your plans will have variances to actual performance!
Regardless of the levels that you select you are going to be planning at a summary level.
This means that you will have to bring data into the system and store it at the same summary level to avoid having to recalculate the values every time you bring them up onto a screen. The main message here is that every time you increase the detail in your plan, you vastly increase the amount of effort required to create the plan in the first place and then to keep it up to date.
This is a point we should bear in mind when we are looking in detail at the elements of a planning system. The main elements of a planning system Preseason analysis Analysis is often seen as a separate activity, but in reality it is the foundation on which effective planning is based.
Most systems will offer some form of category level analysis in the form of views of actual data as it gets imported into the system. At a simple level, pre-season analysis can consist of reviewing these actuals before the planning process begins. However, in order to create effective strategies, you really need to get involved in micro analysis.
This is typically down at the SKU, Store, Week level and ideally should make use of attributes for both products and stores to allow meaningful summaries of the data.
For example we might want to look at summaries within a category by supplier in concession stores shop in shops. The output of the pre-season analysis phase should be a clear statement of objectives for the category, based on a full understanding of the historic weaknesses and the future potential of the category.
Normalisation of base data In order to be able to make a sensible estimate of future performance, it is most likely that we shall use historic data as a reference point. We need to make sure, though, that we are on a level playing field. Historic data will contain all sorts of abnormalities due to such things as promotions, branch refits, bad delivery, bomb scares, and moveable feasts like Easter.
If we are to use this data as a basis for extrapolation we must first remove these abnormalities. This process is called normalisation. The result is a set of normalised historic data that we shall refer to here as the base plan. It is also true to say that the most difficult part of implementing a planning system is getting good, reliable, clean data out of central transactional systems.Three days after the disaster, the Arizona Forestry Division commissioned a “Serious Accident Investigation Team” to review events leading up to the fatal entrapment that inflicted the worst blow to an Interagency Hotshot Crew since such forest-firefighting units were formed nationally in the s.
The Space Marines or Adeptus Astartes are foremost amongst the defenders of humanity, the greatest of the Emperor of Mankind's warriors. They are barely human at all, but superhuman; having been made superior in all respects to a normal man by a harsh regime of genetic modification, psycho-conditioning and rigorous training.
Both a contract drafter and a contract reviewer can save some time by first reviewing — together — the Common Draft short-form contract drafts (as well as other clause titles) and discussing just what types of provision they want in their document.
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Back to all Free Resources View PDF Version. Linda Ackerman Anderson Dean Anderson. After more than three decades of working with executives in organizations undergoing transformational change, we are in the unique position to be able to identify best practices and common mistakes being made across industries.
Publisher Summary. This chapter provides an overview of the master planning for an animal facility. Master planning provides a chance to ensure that plans do not restrict future prospects for growth or expansion.