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Orphaned by the age of four his mother died in and his father inhe came into the care of his grandparents. At the death of his grandfather inhis grandmother, Marie des Moulins, went to live in the convent of Port-Royal and took her grandson with her.
Port-Royal was run by followers of Jansenisma theology condemned as heretical by the French bishops and the Pope. At Port-Royal, he excelled in his studies of the Classics and the themes of Greek and Roman mythology would play large roles in his future works.
He was expected[ by whom? Racine eventually took up residence in Paris where he became involved in theatrical circles. His first play, Amasie, never reached the stage. Thus, Alexandre premiered for the second time, by a different acting troupe, eleven days after its first showing.
He broke all ties with Port-Royal, and proceeded with Andromaquewhich told the story of Andromachewidow of Hectorand her fate following the Trojan War.
Amongst his rivals were Pierre Corneille and his brother, Thomas Corneille.
Tragedians often competed with alternative versions of the same plot: Others, including the historian Warren Lewisattribute his retirement from the theater to qualms of conscience. He got married at about this time to the pious Catherine de Romanet, and his religious beliefs and devotion to the Jansenist sect were revived.
He and his wife eventually had two sons and five daughters. Around the time of his marriage and departure from the theater, Racine accepted a position as a royal historiographer in the court of King Louis XIValongside his friend Boileau.
He kept this position in spite of the minor scandals he was involved in. Two years later, he was bestowed the title of "treasurer of France", and he was later distinguished as an "ordinary gentleman of the king"and then as a secretary of the king Jean Racine died in from cancer of the liver.
His use of the alexandrine poetic line is considered exceptional in its harmony, simplicity and elegance. One was the lack of historic veracity in plays such as Britannicus and Mithridate Racine was quick to point out that his greatest critics — his rival dramatists — were among the biggest offenders in this respect.
General characteristics[ edit ] Racine restricts his vocabulary to words. The unities are strictly observed, for only the final stage of a prolonged crisis is described.
The number of characters, all of them royal, is kept down to the barest minimum. Action on stage is all but eliminated. The mangled Hippolyte is not brought back, as is the Hippolytus of Euripides. The one exception to this is that Atalide stabs herself before the audience in Bajazet ; but this is acceptable in a play conspicuous for its savagery and Oriental colour.
Fundamental nature of tragedy[ edit ] Tragedy shows how men fall from prosperity to disaster. The higher the position from which the hero falls, the greater, in a sense, is the tragedy.
Nature of Greek tragedy[ edit ] Greek tragedy, from which Racine borrowed so plentifully, tended to assume that humanity was under the control of gods indifferent to its sufferings and aspirations. Instead, destiny becomes at least, in the secular plays the uncontrollable frenzy of unrequited love.
As already in the works of Euripidesthe gods have become symbolic. His tragic characters are aware of, but can do nothing to overcome, the blemish which leads them on to a catastrophe.
Her love for Pyrrhus is perfectly natural and is not in itself a flaw of character.
But despite her extraordinary lucidity II 1; V 1 in analysing her violently fluctuating states of mind, she is blind to the fact that the King does not really love her III 3and this weakness on her part, which leads directly to the tragic peripeteia of III 7, is the hamartia from which the tragic outcome arises.
For Racine, love closely resembles a physiological disorder. It is a fatal illness with alternating moods of calm and crisis, and with deceptive hopes of recovery or fulfilment Andromaquell. Her love is not founded upon esteem of the beloved and a concern for his happiness and welfare, but is essentially selfish.
The characteristic Racinian framework is that of the eternal triangle: Bajazet and Atalide are prevented from marrying by the jealousy of Roxane.A linha Microfluid Carbomil é composta por carbonatos de cálcio de origem cretácea com elevada pureza, obtidos a partir de matéria prima selecionada e um rigoroso controle de processo e de qualidade.
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Simone de Beauvoir (—) Simone de Beauvoir was one of the most preeminent French existentialist philosophers and writers. Working alongside other famous existentialists such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, de Beauvoir produced a rich corpus of writings including works on ethics, .